My subjective impressions of my samples agree with Figure 31 of Johnson (1980:74), which shows the Warner population as intermediate, but on the COFL half of the continuum. Other multivariate analyses in Johnson's 1980 monograph either do not include sound characters (Figs. 32-37) and/or use the Warner population as a COFL standard (Figs. 37-38).

Figures 32-36, based on size and color, are less equivocal about the affinities of the Warner sample with COFL, although Fig. 32 does show it as removed somewhat from the Rocky Mountain core populations of COFL. I conclude from these comparisons that the intermediacy of the Warner sample in Figure 31 (Johnson's "Analysis A," page 72) is due primarily to vocal intermediacy. Support for this conclusion comes from Johnson's statement that factor 1 has high loadings for size and song syllables.

Later papers by Johnson (Johnson and Marten 1988, Johnson 1994) do not report further quantitative analyses of sounds, but do support the unequivocal placement of the Warner population in COFL, which appears clearly differentiated from PSFL on morphologic and genetic grounds. Johnson (1994:776) acknowledges, "Position notes are mixed in shape in populations of E. occidentalis in the Siskiyou region, Warner Mountains, and on the east side of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon." It is fair to conclude, I believe, that Johnson's position was that the morphologic and genetic data demonstrate both the specific distinctiveness of COFL and PSFL and that the Warner population is COFL. On this view, and this is my conclusion, vocalizations, which are intermediate in central and eastern Oregon and elsewhere, are not as useful for identification as measurements and perhaps DNA samples.