Typical songs of the five widespread Empidonax flycatchers of western North America, in field guide format. Vertical axes in kiloHertz, horizontal in seconds. Click on each lettered trace on the sonogram to hear the sound(s) depicted there. Click on the blue trace at the top of each panel to hear 10 seconds of singing. Numbered arrows are keyed to species text. Recordings, text, layout, and sonograms © Arch McCallum.

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