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For those users not familiar with conventions of scientific citation, here's how it works. Any time a statement is made that is not based on the original research of the author, the person responsible who did make that particular discovery or offer that particular opinion must be credited, by means of a scientific citation. In some forms of scholarship, this is done with footnotes. Scientific publications, however, use a different convention, which is followed throughout this work. After the statement in the text, the name(s) of the author(s) and year of publication of the information are enclosed in parentheses. If the name(s) of the author(s) is mentioned in the text, then only the year of publication is enclosed in parentheses. The full reference is given in the "Literature Cited" section, which includes only references cited in the text, and is therefore not the same as a bibliography. Cited references are arranged alphabetically by author (s) and year of publication. When a publication has more than two authors, it is typically cited in the text as First Author "et al." All authors' names are given in the Literated Cited section. I follow the conventions of The Auk, flagship publication of the American Ornithologists' Union, except that I spell out the names of the scientific serials (journals and monograph series) in which articles are published, instead of using standard abbreviations.
Every citation in this site is linked to this Literature Cited page, so you can quickly check out the full citation, then return to your place in the text by clicking your browser's "Back" button.
Johnson, N.K. 1980. Character variation and evolution of sibling species in the Empidonax difficilis-flavescens complex (Aves: Tyrannidae). University of California Publications in Zoology. 112:1-151.
Lowther, P. E. 2000. Pacific-slope Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis) and Cordilleran Flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis). In The Birds of North America, No. 556 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
Whitney, B. and K. Kaufman. 1986b. The Empidonax challenge: Looking at Empidonax. Part IV. Acadian, Yellow-bellied, and Western flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, E. flaviventris, and E. dificilis, respectively). Birding 18: 315-327.
Zimmer, K. J. 1985.The Western bird watcher. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Inglewood Cliffs, NJ.