Literature Cited
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For those users not familiar with conventions of scientific citation, here's how it works. Any time a statement is made that is not based on the original research of the author, the person responsible who did make that particular discovery or offer that particular opinion must be credited, by means of a scientific citation. In some forms of scholarship, this is done with footnotes. Scientific publications, however, use a different convention, which is followed throughout this work. After the statement in the text, the name(s) of the author(s) and year of publication of the information are enclosed in parentheses. If the name(s) of the author(s) is mentioned in the text, then only the year of publication is enclosed in parentheses. The full reference is given in the "Literature Cited" section, which includes only references cited in the text, and is therefore not the same as a bibliography. Cited references are arranged alphabetically by author (s) and year of publication. When a publication has more than two authors, it is typically cited in the text as First Author "et al." All authors' names are given in the Literated Cited section. I follow the conventions of The Auk, flagship publication of the American Ornithologists' Union, except that I spell out the names of the scientific serials (journals and monograph series) in which articles are published, instead of using standard abbreviations.

Every citation in this site is linked to this Literature Cited page, so you can quickly check out the full citation, then return to your place in the text by clicking your browser's "Back" button.

Ainsley, D. T. J. 1992. Vocalizations and nesting behaviour of the Pacific-slope Flycatcher, Empidonax difficilis. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC.

American Ornithologists' Union. 1989. Thirty-seventh supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds. Auk 106:532-538.

Bailey, S. F. 1983. Western Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis. Pp. 268-269 In The Audubon Society master guide to birding. Vol. 2. Gulls to dippers.(J. Farrand, Jr. Ed.) Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Buckley, P. A., and S. S. Mitra. 2003. Williamson's Sapsucker, Cordilleran Flycatcher, and other long-distance vagrants at a Long Island, New York stopover site. North American Birds 57:292-304.

Davis, J., G.F. Fisler, and B.S. Davis. 1963. The breeding biology of the Western Flycatcher. Condor 65:337-382.

Howell, S.N.G., and R.J. Cannings. 1992. Songs of two Mexican populations of the Western Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis complex. Condor 94:785-787.

Howell, S.N.G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York.

Johnson, N.K. 1980. Character variation and evolution of sibling species in the Empidonax difficilis-flavescens complex (Aves: Tyrannidae). University of California Publications in Zoology. 112:1-151.

Johnson, N.K. 1994. Old-school taxonomy versus modern biosystematics: Species level decisions in Stelgidopteryx and Empidonax. Auk 111:773-780.

Johnson, N.K. and J.A. Marten. 1988. Evolutionary genetics of flycatchers. II. Differentiation in the Empidonax dificilis complex. Auk 105:177-191.

Kaufman, K. 1990. A field guide to advanced birding. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Kaufman, K. 2001. Birds of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Lowther, P. E. 2000. Pacific-slope Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis) and Cordilleran Flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis). In The Birds of North America, No. 556 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

National Geographic Society. 1999. Field guide to birds of North America. 3rd ed. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.

National Geographic Society. 2002. National Geographic field guide to the birds of North America, Fourth Edition. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Whitney, B. and K. Kaufman. 1986b. The Empidonax challenge: Looking at Empidonax. Part IV. Acadian, Yellow-bellied, and Western flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, E. flaviventris, and E. dificilis, respectively). Birding 18: 315-327.

Zimmer, K. J. 1985.The Western bird watcher. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Inglewood Cliffs, NJ.

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